Grows well in heavy clay soils. Scientific name: Lythrum salicaria. Lythrum salicaria LITH-rum sal-ih-KARE-ee-ah Audio The showy purple spikes of purple loosestrife are attractive in the garden and along roadsides, but the plant’s rampant spread has greatly reduced the ecological value of marshes by displacing native wetland vegetation such as cattails ( Typha spp.) Main Bloom Time: Late summer, Mid summer. Pot them up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are rooting well. It is difficult and expensive to grow from seed. In some cases the plants sold are sterile, which is preferable. Harvest the shoots with plenty of underground stem when they are about 8 - 10cm above the ground. If you have sufficient seed it could be worthwhile trying a sowing in situ in the autumn or the spring. Cosmetic  Dye  Preservative  Tannin  TeethA decoction of the plant is impregnated into wood, rope etc to prevent it rotting in water[74]. It is valued as an intestinal disinfectant, especially in cases of enteritis[7], an infusion is used internally in the treatment of diarrhoea, internal bleeding, excessive menstruation etc[9, 222, 238]. Externally, the plant is used as a cleansing and healing wash for wounds, sores, impetigo, eczema, excess vaginal discharge, vaginal itching etc[7, 222, 238, 254]. Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) 1 Introduction Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) is an invasive, emergent, perennial plant, native to Europe and Asia. Seeds collected in 15 natural populations (two to four populations from each of five regions) were grown in a common garden at Umea˚, northern Sweden for 5 years. Seed - sow in the autumn or the spring in a cold frame. We are adding search terms and icons to those plants pages, and providing a range of search options aligned to categories of plants and crop yields, with Help facilities including videos. The plant was sold in North Dakota by its genus name Lythrum for at least 50 years. Bloom Color: Pink. Genus Lythrum can be annuals or herbaceous perennials, with simple leaves in opposite pairs and small star-shaped flowers in leafy racemes Details L. salicaria is a robust herbaceous perennial with upright stems to 1.2m tall, clad in narrow, willowy leaves, and small vivid purplish-pink flowers 2cm wide in dense terminal spikes over a long period in summer N. America.. However, it will tolerate drier conditions. It grows well in the sun or semi-shade. Sowing time: Spring (self-seeding) Planting time: March to April and September to October. Right plant wrong place. It has been used as an astringent medicinal herb to treat diarrhea and dysentery; it is considered safe to use for all ages, including babies. More >>>. Lythrum salicaria is a herbaceous perennial plant, that can grow 1–2 m tall, forming clonal colonies 1.5 m or more in width with numerous erect stems growing from a single woody root mass. loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria L. (Lythraceae), along a latitudinal gradient through Sweden. Flowers: In long, crowded spikes, deep pink-purple, 5-7 petals, ½-¾" wide, mid-late summer in Maine.Asynchronous flowering - bottom of spikes open first. To leave a comment please Register or login here All comments need to be approved so will not appear immediately. The flowering plant is antibiotic, highly astringent, hypoglycaemic, styptic and vulnerary[4, 7, 9, 21, 152, 218, 238]. Flowering period: July to … Lythrum salicaria, commonly called purple loosestrife, is a clump-forming wetland perennial that is native to Europe and Asia. They are especially associated with boggy areas, river banks and ponds, though in cultivation they often tolerate drier conditions. Lythrum salicaria is an easy garden plant, thriving in any soil. Small infestations can be controlled by removing all roots and underground stems. Cultivation. Please donate to support our ‘Plants to Save the Planet’ Project. The leaves are lanceolate, 3–10 cm long and 5–15 mm broad, downy and sessile, and arranged opposite or in whorls of three. This method is most useful on garden plantings or young infestations. Stay informed about PFAFs progress, challenges and hopes by signing up for our free email ePost. Europe, including Britain, south to N. Africa east to western and northern Asia. [9], The flowers are pollinated by long-tongued insects, including bees and butterflies.[3]. Reed swamps at the margins of lakes and slow-flowing rivers, fens and marshes, avoiding acid soils[17]. It will also grow in coastal gardens. Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), a beautiful but aggressive invader, arrived in eastern North America in the early 1800’s.Plants were brought to North America by settlers for their flower gardens, and seeds were present in the ballast holds of European ships that used soil to weigh down the vessels for stability on the ocean. Leaves. For a list of references used on this page please go here, Considered an invasive species. Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) Cultivation and Biocontrol Insect Release Authorization Permit (Part 1) Form 3200-116 (R 5/03) Page 1 of 2 As a biocontrol cooperator, you will join hundreds of other volunteers using a safe, effective and long-term strategy to control this aggressvie, non-native plant. If you have questions about a plant please use the Forum on this website as we do not have the resources to answer questions ourselves. In North America, purple loosestrife may be distinguished from similar native plants (e.g., fireweed Chamerion angustifolium, blue vervain Verbena hastata, Liatris Liatris spp., and spiraea (Spiraea douglasii) by its angular stalks which are square in outline, as well as by its leaves, which are in pairs that alternate at right angle and are not serrated. Flowering lasts throughout the summer. The stems are reddish-purple or red to purple and square in cross-section. This perennial herb reaches a … purple loosestrife growing in a common garden study at the Koffler Scientific Reserve (University of Toronto). We are working on a subset of plants in the PFAF database identified as having the most potential for inclusion in such designs. If you have important information about this plant that may help other users please add a comment or link below. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). * Important announcements and news 2005 Ann Bot (London) 96:877--885 The flowers are showy and bright, and a number of cultivars have been selected for variation in flower colour, including: The cultivars ‘Blush’[12] with blush-pink flowers, and 'Feuerkerze'[13] with rose-red flowers have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. When the larvae emerge they eat the flowers' ovaries, and the plant is unable to create seeds. Its feeding habits are also quite similar to the other leaf beetle. 1885) Reference: Houghton-Thompson et al. Most provide delicious and nutritious fruit, but many also have edible leaves, seeds, flowers, stems or roots, or they yield edible or useful oil. QR Codes are barcodes that can be read by mobile phone (smartphone) cameras. As may be expected of a widely distributed plant, Lythrum salicaria is an easy garden plant, thriving in any soil and generally healthy. We will not sell or share your email address. The loosestrife root weevil Hylobius transversovittatus is a large red nocturnal weevil, which spends its nights feeding on leaves and leaf buds. Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees, flies. Remo… * Exclusive content not on the website USDA Plant Database (NRCS). Special Features:Invasive, Naturalizing, Attracts butterflies, Suitable for cut flowers. var s = '' It has gradually spread throughout much of the United Stat… Purple loosestrife provides a model of successful biological pest control. Our new book to be released soon is Edible Shrubs. * Updates on new information & functionality of the website & database IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. It is a beautiful subject for late summer colour in a border, shrubbery, large pond or slow-moving water. Although many alien invasive plants have naturalized by escaping gardens, purple loosestrife basically began naturalizing on its own in rural areas. Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) Stem. Genus Lythrum can be annuals or herbaceous perennials, with simple leaves in opposite pairs and small star-shaped flowers in leafy racemes Details 'Blush' is an erect herbaceous perennial to 80cm in height, with lance-shaped leaves and slender racemes of pale pink flowers from midsummer to early autumn The species Lythrum intermedium Ledeb. Its flowers are extremely attractive to bees and butterflies. Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Purple loosestrife, to give L. salicaria its common name, is a British native found in wet meadows, by streams and in damp soil. Lythrum salicaria ‘Robin’ bears magenta pink flowers over a particularly long period – typically from late spring … The stems are reddish-purple or red to purple and square in cross-section. 2019 Status in Maine: Widespread.Very Invasive. It should not be confused with other plants sharing the name loosestrife that are members of the family Primulaceae. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking. Book titles include Edible Plants, Edible Perennials, Edible Trees, and Woodland Gardening. Lythrum salicaria works well grown alongside other moisture-loving plants such as inula. The larvae usually proceed to hollow out the flower buds and use them as safe places to pupate. The leaves are lanceolate, 3–10 cm long and 5–15 mm broad, downy and sessile, and arranged opposite or in whorls of three. Excellent for wildlife and designated as Perfect for Pollinators by the RHS. The black-margined loosestrife beetle Galerucella calmariensis is a brown beetle with a black line on its thorax. [10] It is also cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens, and is particularly associated with damp, poorly drained locations such as marshes, bogs and watersides. [1][2][3] The flowers are visited by many types of insects, and can be characterized by a generalized pollination syndrome. Wetland perennial, three to seven feet tall, with up to 50 stems topped with purple flower spikes. [4], The fruit is a small 3–4 mm capsule[5] containing numerous minute seeds. Caterpillars of the engrailed moth (Ectropis crepuscularia), a polyphagous geometer moth, also feed on purple loosestrife. (2004). The larvae emerge from their eggs and immediately burrow into the root of the plant, which they feed on continuously for over a year. A good bee and butterfly plant[24]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. The Project is directed at enabling designers of ‘carbon farms’ and ‘food forests’: agroecosystems of perennial plants, to choose the most appropriate plants for their requirements and site conditions. Smartphone users scan the QR Code which automatically takes them to the webpage the QR Code came from. Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) French common name: Salicaire commune Purple loosestrife has evolved to tolerate the shorter growing seasons and colder weather of … Lythrum salicaria a.k.a. 1. A very ornamental plant[1]. Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. Leaves are opposite, (sometimes whorled), nearly linear, and attached to four-sided stems without stalks. So either divide rootstock in March or take cuttings of new shoots in April. They are an invasive species in many areas in Northern America, and growing them is banned in the garden. "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers", "Non-native Invasive Freshwater Plants - Purple Loosestrife (, United States National Agricultural Library,, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 'Happy' with red flowers on a short (60 cm) stem, 'Purple Spires' with purple flowers on a tall stem. long, smooth edges (margins), lack hair (glabrous) to … The flowering plant is harvested in the summer and can be used fresh or dried[9]. Lythrum salicaria is a PERENNIAL growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in) at a fast rate. Mostly opposite or whorled, narrow to lance-shaped, 2-6 in. Take care to prevent further seed spread from clothing or equipment during the removal process. The adult feeds on the leaves of the plant, producing characteristic round holes. The powdered plant is used as a haemostatic in cases of severe nosebleeds[7]. Succeeds in ordinary garden soil, especially if it is damp[1]. (Lythrum salicaria L.) W1132 (Revised) Purple loosestrife, a beautiful garden plant with an aggres-sive nature, was first introduced into North America in the early 1800s. It is a perennial plant. Basal cuttings in the spring[238]. Rich in calcium[179]. Webb, D.A., Parnell, J. and Doogue, D. 1996. This species can be very invasive and has been declared a noxious weed in some countries. Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria. Copy and print the QR code to a plant label, poster, book, website, magazines, newspaper etc and even t-shirts. Grows well in marshy soils[24] and succeeds in shallow water at the edges of ponds[56]. Lythrum salicaria ‘Robert’ is a more compact variant of Purple loosestrife growing to a maximum of around 80cm with spikes of clear pink flowers from June-September. [citation needed]. Edible Parts: Leaves  RootEdible Uses: ColouringLeaves - cooked[13, 46, 61, 105]. You can unsubscribe at anytime. The root pattern is rhizomatous with underground stems sending roots and shoots along their length [2-1]. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.Antibiotic  Antidiarrhoeal  Astringent  Hypoglycaemic  Styptic  VulneraryPurple loosestrife is an astringent herb that is mainly employed as a treatment for diarrhoea and dysentery. 3. (Lythrum salicaria) Photo credit: S. Kelly Kearns. Plant them out in the spring. It is difficult to remove all of the roots in a single digging, so monitor the area for several growing seasons to ensure that purple loosestrife has not regrown from roots or seed. The purple loosestrife has been introduced into temperate New Zealand and North America where it is now widely naturalised and officially listed in some controlling agents. The dead stalks from previous growing seasons are brown. If well-watered and reasonably sheltered, it reaches over 2 m high. Landscape Uses:Container, Massing, Rock garden, Seashore, Specimen. The species L. salicaria (purple loosestrife) and L. virgatum are found in cultivation. Edible Shrubs provides detailed information, attractively presented, on over 70 shrub species. It is noted for attracting wildlife. Dispose of plants and roots by drying and burning or by composting in an enclosed area. Plant them out in the summer. [1][3][6], Native to Europe, Asia, northwest Africa, and southeastern Australia. : agroecosystems of perennial plants, to choose the most appropriate plants for their requirements and site conditions. You will receive a range of benefits including: It can be safely taken by people of all ages and has been used to help arrest diarrhoea in breast-feeding babies[254]. Wilson, L. M., Schwarzlaender, M., Blossey, B., & Randall, C. B. Lythrum salicaria known commonly as Purple Loosestrife, is an interesting species native not only to Australia but widespread in Europe, Asia and North America.. It is a beautiful subject for late summer colour in a border, shrubbery, large pond or slow-moving water. Phonetic Spelling LITH-rum sal-ih-KAIR-ee-ah This plant is an invasive species in North Carolina Description. All plant pages have their own unique code. We are working on a subset of plants in the PFAF database identified as having the most potential for inclusion in such designs. Lythrum salicaria, or purple loosestrife,[1] is a flowering plant belonging to the family Lythraceae. Plants shouldn’t need staking but deadhead spent blooms regularly to maintain a tidy appearance, and divide clumps every three to five years to avoid congestion. It is believed to have been first introduced into the U.S. from seed contained in ships ballast, and it became established in certain estuaries in the northeastern states by the early 1800s. [14], It has also been introduced in many areas of North America by bee keepers,[citation needed] due to its abundance of flowers which provide a large source of nectar. ex Colla is also now considered synonymous. This is to help with control of these plants in native wetland areas. If you think a comment/link or information contained on this page is inaccurate or misleading we would welcome your feedback at According to the U.S Forest Service, Invasive species have contributed to the decline of 42% of U.S. endangered and threatened species, and for 18% of U.S. endangered or threatened species. It has strong, upright stems, from which long, poker-like heads of bright purple-red flowers appear from midsummer. Prefers a neutral to alkaline soil[238]. It can also be used to treat heavy periods and inter-menstrual bleeding[254]. Spectacular when in full bloom, Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) is a vigorous, upright perennial enjoying an extremely long bloom season from late spring to late summer. The leaves contain about 12% tannin, the stems 10.5%, the flowers 13.7% and the roots 8.5%[218]. Succeeds in full sun or partial shade[188]. Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G. * Please note: the comments by website users are not necessarily those held by PFAF and may give misleading or inaccurate information. It is currently against the law in North Carolina and many other states to sell Purple Loosestrife, because it escapes from cultivation and becomes a prolific weed in wetland areas, choking out native vegetation essential for waterfowl. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. The beetles used as biological control agents include two species of leaf beetle: Galerucella calmariensis and Galerucella pusilla; and three species of weevil: Hylobius transversovittatus, Nanophyes breves, and Nanophyes marmoratus. The loosestrife flower weevil Nanophyes marmoratus is a tiny weevil which lays a single egg in each flower. Once established, loosestrife stands are difficult and costly to remove by mechanical and chemical means. 'Roseum Superbum' with large pink flowers. For more information about QR Codes click here. Plant family: loosestrife family (Lythraceae) Other names: spiked loosestrife, purple lythrum. Gardener's HQ Guide to Growing Loosestrife and Purple Willow Herb Lythrum plants are hardy perennials that can reach an height of 150 cm. that wildlife uses as food or shelter. pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). 2. It degrades natural habitat and changes … 1968. Other names include spiked loosestrife and purple lythrum. This root damage stunts the plant's growth and ability to create seeds. One main leader stem, but many side branches often make the plant look bushy. Planting, sale, or other distribution without a permit is also prohibited in Indiana (312 IAC 14-24-12). Its long stalks of purple flowers are a common sight in wetlands. When the seeds are mature, the leaves often turn bright red through dehydration in early autumn; the red colour may last for almost two weeks. document.write(s); This is a QR code (short for Quick Response) which gives fast-track access to our website pages. Description: Robust, perennial herb, 4-6', base of mature plant feels woody.Leaves: Simple, opposite or whorled, lanceolate to oblong, entire, sessile. It features pink, purple or magenta flowers in dense spikes, up to 18 in. If available other names are mentioned here, Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available. Modern research has shown the whole plant to be antibiotic and to be particularly effective against the micro-organism that causes typhus[254]. Smartphone users quickly have information on a plant directly for the website on their phone. The powdered plant is used cosmetically in face-packs to counteract reddened skin[7]. Infestations result in dramatic disruption in water flow in rivers and canals, and a sharp decline in biological diversity as native food and cover plant species, notably cattails, are completely crowded out, and the life cycles of organisms from waterfowl to amphibians to algae are affected. Root - cooked[13]. Five species of beetle use purple loosestrife as their natural food source and they can do significant damage to the plant. Etymology: (Greek: clotted blood, from use of Lythrum salicaria, the first named sp., to stop hemorrhaging, according to Gerard, Bull Torrey Bot Club 12: 60. A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to at least -25°c[187]. A single plant may produce up to 2.7 million tiny seeds annually. The golden loosestrife beetle Galerucella pusilla is nearly identical to G. calmariensis, but usually lacks the black thoracic line. Lythrum salicaria is a PERENNIAL growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in) at a fast rate. Up to 6 ft. tall, 4-5 sided, covered with short hairs and often branched; multiple stems arise from root crown. Lythrum salicaria outcompetes native native plants. Lythrum salicaria is listed as an exotic weed in Illinois (525 ILCS 10/3, 10/4) making it illegal to buy, sell or distribute plants, its seeds, or any part without a permit. It is in flower from June to August, and the seeds ripen from August to September. Plants usually self-sow when well sited[200]. Type a value in the Celsius field to convert the value to Fahrenheit: Plants For A Future have a number of books available in paperback and digital form. Lythrum salicaria is a herbaceous perennial plant, that can grow 1–2 m tall, forming clonal colonies 1.5 m or more in width with numerous erect stems growing from a single woody root mass. For best results grow Lythrum salicaria in moist soil, such as around the edge of a pond. A perennial from Europe, purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)usually grows from 3-5 feet tall, but can reach a height of up to 7 feet. Division in March or October[188]. In Australia the species occurs in all eastern states including Tasmania. Lythrum salicaria (Purple Loosetrife) is listed in the Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States. Its larvae destroy tender leaf buds and strip the tissue from the leaves. The specific epithet salicaria means willow-like; it refers to the shape of the leaves of this plant. The stems are reddish-purple or red to purple and square in cross-section. The moth Ectropis crepuscularia is polyphagous and a pest species itself, and unsuitable for biological control.[16]. This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 23:03. Only comments or links that are felt to be directly relevant to a plant will be included. Margins are smooth. A number of insects use Lythrum salicaria as a food resource. Typically they have square stems, narrow stalkless leaves, and spikes of star-shaped flowers in shades of purple, pink and white. [15] Easily carried by wind and water, the seeds germinate in moist soils after overwintering. It is hardy to zone (UK) 3. The flowers are reddish purple, 10–20 mm diameter, with six petals (occasionally five) and 12 stamens, and are clustered tightly in the axils of bracts or leaves; there are three different flower types, with the stamens and style of different lengths, short, medium or long; each flower type can only be pollinated by one of the other types, not the same type, thus ensuring cross-pollination between different plants. To quantify varia-tion in phenology and life history, we recorded the start Research began in 1985 and today the plant is managed well with a number of insects that feed on it. Clipped plants grow back and cut stems readily re-root in the soil to produce new plants. and Warburg, R.F. They have been selected to provide a mix of different plant sizes and growing conditions. We are adding search terms and icons to those plants pages, and providing a range of search options aligned to categories of plants and crop yields, with Help facilities including videos. It is probably these tannins that preserve the wood etc[218]. In garden design, as well as the above-ground architecture of a plant, root structure considerations help in choosing plants that work together for their optimal soil requirements including nutrients and water. Lythrum salicariais a herbaceousperennial plant, that can grow 1–2 m tall, forming clonal colonies1.5 m or more in width with numerous erect stems growing from a single woody root mass. Plants marketed under the name "European wand loosestrife" (L. virgatum) are the same species despite the different name. The plant can also sprout anew from pieces of root left in the soil or water. Form: Upright or erect. See Colautti and Barrett (2013) Ecology [1][2][3], L. salicaria is very variable in leaf shape and degree of hairiness, and a number of subspecies and varieties have been described, but it is now generally regarded as monotypic with none of these variants being considered of botanical significance. The stems are regarded as gum stimulators and are given to children to chew in order to strengthen weak or bleeding gums[7]. Purple loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria, is a tall-growing wildflower that grows naturally on banks of streams and around ponds. It was brought to North America in the early 1800s through a number of pathways including If several larvae inhabit the same root, the plant can be killed. This QR Code is unique to this page. Since being introduced in N. America it has invaded native marshlands, florming large areas of dense stands and crowding out many native species[274]. We are currently updating this section. [2][6][7][8], Found in ditches, wet meadows and marshes and along sides of lakes. Infestations of either of the Galerucella species is extremely effective in wiping out a stand of purple loosestrife, defoliating up to 100% of the plants in an area. The Arrival. long (45 cm) held atop lance-shaped leaves. An edible dye is obtained from the flowers[13].
2020 lythrum salicaria cultivation