I’m not sure that has much to do with wear resistance. Those more recent carbide replacement steels combine high vanadium (5% or greater) along with high hardness (>69 Rc) for very high strength and wear resistance. The edge retention of 3V is too high at 4.5 out of 5 whereas D2 gets only a “3” despite the two getting a similar result in Bohler-Uddeholm CATRA testing [1]. Proven design, amazing steel 12/09/2017 By Seth Lord Always been a satisfied user of the Para 2 lineup, and this is now my favorite. Could you provide a small table with some ‘simple’ choices, say… a recommended steel for ‘very low use, EDC to the office, open mail and slice fruit’, one for ‘general use around the house and garden, doing things with the blade, that shouldn’t be done with a blade (but the appropriate tool)’ and perhaps one for ‘backcountry, hard use, wet, beat up and put to use like a tool should be’, “I would say if it’s not broken it remains usable. [7] Gill, James P. “Alloy steel tool.” U.S. Patent No. The steel was found to have a good combination of toughness, corrosion resistance, and very high wear resistance. This article was put together by “The Pocket Knife Guy” but I couldn’t find anything about him other than his name is Matt. It is true that smaller grains means higher toughness and strength. 66% Score of Average of Top 5: 251; closest steel is CTS-XHP at 242 The super hard high speed steels (>68 Rc or so) are interesting from the standpoint of knife enthusiasts and knifemakers, particularly since knives are so often produced in the 58-61 Rc range. I agree. Powder Metallurgy Super Hard High Speed Steels. Top Rated Plus. The available datasheets from the steel manufacturers are often missing information on specific toughness, wear resistance, or corrosion resistance tests and when they do have them the tests are typically not comparable between the manufacturers. The Native 5 features a patterned FRN handle with two separate finger choils. After that it will be interesting to test the edge stability and toughness with more controlled destructive edge testing. With 13% Tungsten, Maxamet’s chemical composition is very unusual. These tests showed the expected superior toughness of Maxamet, though the difference is not much to write home about. These steels were dubbed “Super Hard” [5] or “Ultra Hard” [14] High Speed Steels, though eventually they were generally lumped into the “Super High Speed Steel” category along with M4 and T15. Silicon has only been researched more recently, and not many new high speed steels have been developed since. I don’t have any articles on how to determine steel toughness and edge retention, for example. REX 121 Steel: Hardness vs. Toughness. He says that vanadium helps produce a fine grain structure which is true enough in small doses. some believe that without vanadium there is no secondary hardening at all even when alloyed with a large amount with Mo or W . Another point where it looks like more information is being provided to the reader but may or may not be useful is the inclusion of a property like “wear resistance.” The effect of wear resistance on edge retention or ease of sharpening is nowhere defined in the article so it mostly serves to pad out the chart. He also defines toughness but does not rate toughness of any of the steels. He doesn’t list the effect of different elements (yay!) Here are the ratings: Why is there no page for steel ratings on this website? He doesn’t list the effect of different elements (yay!) “New Bohler powder metallurgy high speed steel with excellent hot hardness.” In Proc. Doing some dumb cuttin' just to see what we can do. Maxamet is hard and tough enough to meet the demands of rolling and shaping hot steel. “High speed steel.” U.S. Patent 3,113,862, issued December 10, 1963. Thanks to Stacy Apelt for becoming a Knife Steel Nerds Patreon supporter! And when cutting materials with a higher cutting speed requiring better hot hardness. Maxamet is a high carbide volume steel, ~22%. I’m not sure why M390 has such a good reputation for toughness. Perhaps we can make some prediction of which carbide replacement steels would have the best toughness by looking at the relative carbide contents are predicted by Thermo-Calc at 2200°F: Maxamet is predicted to have the lowest carbide content and Rex 121 the highest carbide content so those steels would be expected to have the highest and lowest toughness. I'd never do this in the real world. [8] Gill, James P. “Ferrous alloy.” U.S. Patent No. 440C gets a higher rating than 440A for corrosion resistance despite the fact that 440A has better corrosion resistance because less chromium is tied up in carbides in 440A. You should add Blade HQ’s ranking: And while I might rate something an “8” out of 10 while someone else gives it a “7” one might argue that it is perhaps not a meaningful difference. Read the article here. D2 is given a hardness rating of 62 Rc despite 60 Rc being much more common. Based on a poll of Knife Steel Nerds Patreon voting members, we have decided to purchase a small impact tester for knife edges. The toughness of M42 was also pretty good, comparable with other high speed steels when at the same hardness, and does not drop dramatically in the 68+ hardness range. The full-flat-ground blade includes a fully accessible Trademark Round Hole for swift, ambidextrous, one-handed opening. Those carbide contents are supported by micrographs I took of both of those steels, where you can see that Rex 121 has both more carbide and larger carbides than Maxamet. Maxamet is a complex steel alloy with extreme edge retention and toughness (non-stainless). It really isn’t, as Maxamet is a high speed steel designed to be a carbide replacement for better toughness but retaining much of the hot hardness, and is not stainless. Cemented carbide combines a high percentage of very hard tungsten carbide (>75%) along with a soft cobalt binder. I would personally be more careful before calling any of my articles the “ultimate” anything but I suppose we can give him the benefit of the doubt and say that the title is for clickbait purposes and not necessarily how he feels about his own steel knowledge. Compare. To further distinguish it, its textured G-10 scales are a distinctive dark gray color. So I don’t know if the number is supposed to be based on maximum achievable hardness or typical hardness in production knives. D2 is made worldwide and cannot be called a “version of CPM S30V” particularly because it is nearly 100 years older. He gives a higher edge retention score to 14C28N than 13C26 even though the steels are very similar other than corrosion resistance. Thanks Jul 9, 2019 #2. They have the appearance of providing useful information but really doesn’t tell a consumer very much. 11 Jan. 1938. I write long, detailed articles that only true nerds read. [5] Fletcher, S. G. and Wendell. This is somewhat surprising because of the deleterious effect of cobalt on toughness. silicon addition give the highest hardness compared to cobalt , aluminium & nickel . I wrote about this development in this article. He says that manganese “[i]ncreases toughness and hardenability in non-stainless steels and helps to produce a fine, dense, grain structure in stainless steels by reducing the size of the Carbides.” It does not improve toughness or reduce the size of the carbides, and he doubles down on this later in the article by saying “A blades toughness is generally determined by the steel’s Manganese content,” which it certainly is not. An even higher Mo-alloyed grade, M1, predated M2 but did not have the same level of success. Maxamet VS S30v Toughness Testing! Rigid prints, or prints designed to be durable, will benefit from having high toughness. 2,105,114. Toughness is mostly related to mechanical vocabulary. After hardening those operations are even more challenging as would be expected from the high hardness. This superior grindability is probably from M42 having the lowest vanadium of these steels. While M390 does have a higher overall value than Maxamet, the way I see it is that Maxamet has higher edge retention and wear resistance. Top. I assist on multiple “beginner bladesmithing” groups, and these charts are constantly floating around. Since these are all powder metallurgy steels with high alloy content they are all relatively expensive. M42 steel became the most commonly used of these Super Hard High Speed Steels, probably because of its superior grindability. I thought about including charts from the manufacturers because there is reason to question them in some cases. In high speed steels Si behaves a bit differently than in the somewhat lower alloy steels in that article, however. I’ve learned quite a bit from you. In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing. They can’t. Maybe. [24] Wert, David E., Gregory J. Del Corso, and Harrison A. Garner Jr. “High-hardness powder metallurgy tool steel and article made therefrom.” U.S. Patent 6,482,354, issued November 19, 2002. Also, a person new to steel terms doesn’t know what having “fine grains” means in a knife. From the beginning of the Super Hard High Speed Steels, it was promised that these steels could replace cemented carbide for some machining operations [12]. He next lists the effect of different elements which as I explained above I’m not a big fan of. I did some sleuthing and found that the Knife Informer article was online first. ... On the business end, a variety of premium stainless steel blades provide low-friction edge geometry, extreme toughness, and exceptional edge retention. Hover over an element to learn more about how it affects steel performance characteristics. The move to M2 was necessitated by tungsten shortages in WWII and the Korean War but it was also discovered that M2 had higher toughness, wear resistance, and potential hardness than T1. The original patent was for 8% Mo high speed steels, but after the popularity of M2 steel it was modified to be a Mo-W steel and became M4 by 1941 [9]. The predicted value for Maxamet is close to the experimental value above, however, which gives me some hope for the validity of the predictions. The patent for S90V was filed in 1995 [2]. 657-660. Then he takes a left turn and says that chromium “increases the size of its crystals” which is not true. because now I don’t know which steel to choose! He says that manganese “[i]ncreases. electroslag, forged ring/ block,etc. It did very well in the test as we would expect for a steel with both high hardness and high vanadium content. Like chromium it is a driver of carbide formation but is used typically in small relative quantities. So it was a good upgrade overall due to decreased cost and improved properties. 534, pp. And improvements in composition control allowed more tight targets to appropriately balance the chemistry for maximum hardness [5]. M1 was patented in 1933 [2] and M2 in 1939 [3]. St-Etienne. M41 steel was developed from M35, M42 from M33, M43 from M34, and M44 from M6. Looking forward to reading the updated version. but does link to an article that does (boo! Else can repeat it as if it were fact, and on it goes. Steel Chart. In an alloy, Tungsten contributes to the harden-ability, and with this much Tungsten it’s no surprise that Spyderco hardened Maxamet up to 67-68 RC. why there is no use of silicon in such steels instead of cobalt ? Those alloying elements lead to the precipitation of very tiny carbides that increase hardness in the high temperature tempering range. However, he also says that, “Many people report that they are able to get knives using steels that contain vanadium such as CPM S30V sharper than they can non-Vanadium steels such as ATS-34.” I’m not sure I’ve heard anyone report that before, as the hard vanadium carbides typically make sharpening more difficult. This shows how good Maxamet is at this one particular thing. Grindability was an important consideration because of the difficulty of grinding such hard steels. It really isn’t, as Maxamet is a high speed steel designed to be a carbide replacement for better toughness but retaining much of the hot hardness, and is not stainless. Thanks! It is true that a steel like 420 does have a limited maximum hardness but for most of the others it is a matter of choice. There are a few reasons: Update 6/20/2019: While I haven’t made a steel rating article, I did write an article about how to choose steels, and provided recommendations for the best steels within certain categories.
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